SOURCE CITATIONS

Full listings for abbreviated citations are at the end of this
report in "Sources Cited."

1. B. B. Robinson, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2687. See also W.
H. Fuller of Iowa State Agricultural Experiment Station, "Farm Crops""
hearings, p. 2812; "Hemp, " Textile, 326.
2. Fred Brenckman, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2665.
3. Guy M. Gillette, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2666.
4. Russell Smith to Guy M. Gillette, July 5, 1944, in "Farm
Crops" hearings, p. 2769.
5. Dempsey, Fiber, 84.
6. "Hemp Needs New Uses," Science. News Letter, 158; George E.
Farrell, Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 15.
7. "Hemp Needs New Uses," Science. News Letter, 158; Garland,
"Hemp; A Minor American Fiber Crop," 126.
8. "Hemp," Business Week, Jan. 12, 1946, p. 48; "Hemp Needs
New Uses,"
Science. News Letter, 158; Robinson, "Our Flax and Hemp Industries,"
246; W. H. Fuller, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2813; Martin J.
Connolly, "Farm Crops," hearings, p. 2706; John W. McCormack, House
"Marihuana" hearings, p. 25.
9. George E. Farrell, Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 15.
10. Robinson, "Our Flax and Hemp Industries," 243.
11. Herzog, "Hemp as a Fibre Plant," 20; Heermann, "Cottonized
Flax and Hemp as a Substitute for Cotton," 85; Brown, "Progress in the
Technology of Flax and Hemp," 299, 300.
12. Heermann, "Cottonized Flax and Hemp as a Substitute for
Cotton," 86.
13. Dacy, "Revolutionizing an Industry," 446.
14. Martin J. Connolly, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2706.
15. Ibid.
16. Dempsey, Fiber Crops, 47.
17. "Hemp Needs New Uses," Science News Letter 48 (1945): 158.
18. Dacy, "Revolutionizing an Industry," 446.
19. Dempsey, Fiber Crops, 47.
20. Stuart and Robertson, "Hemp-Cored Conductors Replaced in
Novel Procedure," 1356-58; Statement of Edwin R. Metcalf, "Farm Crops"
hearings, p. 2494.
21. Marsh and Nowland, "Wipe Silicone from Insulators with Loose
Hemp," 50.
22. "Hemp Needs New Uses," Science News Letter, 158; Dempsey,
Fiber Crops, 84.
23. Hudson, "Plant Saves Fuel by Burning Waste Hemp," 555-557.
24. Dempsey, Fiber Crops, 84.
25. "Hemp," Business Week, Jan. 12, 1945, p. 48; Dempsey,
Fiber Crops, 84
26. Martin J. Connolly, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2706.
27. Dempsey, Fiber Crops, 84.
28. Schabas, "Canadian-Grown Hemp May Soon Be Ready for Fine
Paper Producers," 60; Dempsey, Fiber Crops, 84; Arthur Howe, "Farm
Crops" hearings, p. 2538; Edward S. Boote, Senate "Hemp" hearing,
p. 13.
29. Fournier, "Apercu de la Production du Chanvre en France,"
1264-67; Malyon and Henman, "No Marihuana: Plenty of Hemp," 435.
30. Nazario, "What Is as Versatile as the Soybean but Illegal
Anyway?" Wall Street Journal, A13.
31. Fournier, "Apercu de la Production du Chanvre en France,"
1266.
32. Royal C. Johnson, Senate "Marihuana" hearings, p. 29.
33. Fiber importer Frank Riccio, quoted in Nazario, "What," A13.
34. Royal C. Johnson, Senate "Marihuana" hearings, p. 31.
35. Schabas, "Canadian-Grown Hemp May Soon Be Ready for Fine
Paper Producers," 56.
36. Royal C. Johnson, Senate "Marihuana" hearings, p. 29.
37. Abel, "'That Valuable Article': Hemp," 30.
38. Calvert, "New Data on Main Sterilization," 788-89; Ash,
"Hemp--Production and Utilization," 162.
39. B. B. Robinson and A. H. Wright, Hemp--Its Production and Use
as a Fiber Crop, reprinted in "Farm Crops," hearings, p.2698.
40. Statement of Edwin R. Metcalf, "Farm Crops" hearings, p.
2494.
41. Dempsey, Fiber Crops, 84.
42. Wright, "Hemp for Shoes, Ships and Twine," 1; "Hemp: The
Barometer of War," Literary Digest, 26.
43. Robinson, "Our Flax and Hemp Industries," 244.
44. B. B. Robinson and A. H. Wright, Hemp: Its Production and
Use as a Fiber Crop, reprinted in "Farm Crops' hearings, p. 2703.
45. George E. Farrell, Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 15.
46. Robinson, "Our Flax and Hemp Industries," 246; "Hemp Need
New Uses," Science News Letter, 158.
47. Wright, "Hemp for Shoes, Ships and Twine," 1; Statement of
Edwin R. Metcalf, "Farm Crops' hearings, p. 2494.
48. Ash, "Hemp--Production and Utilization," 162.
49. Lowry, "Flax and Hemp," 146.
50. Dempsey, Fiber Crops, 84.
51. Statement of Edwin R. Metcalf, "Farm Crops" hearings, p.
2494, 2507; Ash, "Hemp--Production and Utilization," 162.
52. Edward S. Boote, Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 14.
53. Ash, "Hemp--Production and Utilization," 158.
54. O. E. Sweeney, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2826.
55. Malyon and Henman, "No Marihuana: Plenty of Hemp," 435.
56. O. E. Sweeney, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2826.
57. "New Billion-Dollar Crop," 144A; O. E. Sweeney, "Farm
Crops" hearings, p. 2827.
58. Smith-Hurd Illinois Annotated Statutes 1990, 24 sec. 11-8-4.
59. Wilsie, Dyas, and Norman, Hemp: A War Crop for Iowa, 598;
see also Garland, "Hemp; A Minor American Fiber Crop," 131; Malyon and
Henman, "No Marihuana: Plenty of Hemp," 435.
60. Robert M. La Follette, Jr., Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 3.
61. O. E. Sweeney, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2825.
62. Fournier, "Apercu de la Production de Chanvre en France,"
1268.
63. Wilsie, Dyas, and Norman, "Hemp: A War Crop for Iowa," 597;
"Hemp Cultivation in the United States," Textile Colorist, 327;
"Waste-Fuel Plant," 456; Garland, "Hemp; A Minor American Fiber Crop,"
131; Title IV, section 1, Master Contract between Commodity Credit
Corporation and War Hemp Industries, Inc., printed in "Farm Crops"
hearings, p. 2525.
64. Lewis, Card, and McHargue, "Tobacco Stalks, Hemp Hurds, and
Sorghum Bagasse as Sources of Cellulose for Making High-Quality Paper,"
13.
65. Ibid., 5.
66. O. E. Sweeney, "Farm Crops," pp. 2827-28.
67. Ibid., p. 2828.
68. Gunn, "The Come-Back of Hemp," 1323.
69. Dewey and Merrill, "Hemp Hurds as Paper-Making Material,"
20, 24-5.
70. Leonard Inasault Key, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2815.
71. West, "Hemp Wood as a Paper making Material," 46, 48.
72. Lewis, Card, and McHargue, "Tobacco Stalks, Hemp Hurds, and
Sorghum Bagasse as Sources of Cellulose for Making High-Quality Paper," 9.
73. Nieschlag et al., "A Search for New Fiber Crops," 193.
74. Nieschlag et al., "A Search for New Fiber Crops," 998.
75. Nieschlag et al., "A Search for New Fiber Crops," 324.
76. Nieschlag et al., "A Search for New Fiber Crops," 197.
77. Lewis, Card, and McHargue, "Tobacco Stalks, Hemp Hurds, and
Sorghum Bagasse as Sources of Cellulose for Making High-Quality Paper," 5.
78. Timell, "Some Properties of Native Hemp, Jute, and Kapok
Celluloses," 855; John N. McGovern, "Fibers, Vegetable," in Grayson and
Eckroth, eds., Kirk, Table 2, p. 185.
79. Nieschlag et al., "A Search for New Fiber Crops," 199.
80. Malyon and Henman, "No Marihuana: Plenty of Hemp," 435.
81. Ibid.
82. Young, "It's Time to Reconsider Hemp," 7.
83. Robinson, "Our Flax and Hemp Industries," 247; Lowry,
"Flax and Hemp," 145.
84. Lowry, "Flax and Hemp," 25.
85. Lewis, Card, and McHargue, "Tobacco Stalks, Hemp Hurds, and
Sorghum Bagasse as Sources of Cellulose for Making High-Quality Paper,"
13.
86. M. G. Moksnes, Senate "Marihuana" hearings, p. 27.
87. Martin J. Connolly, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2704.
88. "New Billion Dollar Crop," 238; O. E. Sweeney, "Farm
Crops," p. 2827-29.
89. O. E. Sweeney, "Farm Crops" p. 2828.
90. Leonard Inasault Key, "Farm Crops," hearings, p. 2815.
91. Fournier, "Apercu de la Production de Chanvre en France,"
1266; Fournier, "Les Chimiotypes du Chanvre (Cannabis sativa L. )
Interet pour un Programme de selection," 681.
92. Raymond G. Scarlett, House "Marihuana" hearings, pp.
73-73; Joseph B. Hertzfeld, House "Marihuana" hearings, p. 77.
93. Ralph F. Lozier, House "Marihuana" hearings, p. 70;
Clinton M. Hester, Senate "Marihuana" hearings, p. 6; House Report 792,
75 Cong, 1 sess., excerpted in "Farm Crops" hearings, 2709;
Grinspoon, Marihuana Reconsidered, 34.
94. Schultes, "Man and Marijuana," 60; Grinspoon, Marihuana
Reconsidered, 10.
95. Sutter, "Are You Growing Marijuana Without Knowing It?" 42;
Ralph F. Lozier, House "Marihuana" hearings, p. 61; Dempsey, Fiber
Crops, 46; Schultes, "Man and Marijuana," 60; Grinspoon, Marihuana
Reconsidered, 34.
96. Typed note, Ralph F. Lozier Papers, folder 1270.
97. 50 USC sec. 2251.802(1), 1982
98. Schultes, "Man and Marijuana," 60.
99. Dempsey, Fiber Crops, 69; Martin J. Connolly, "Farm Crops"
hearings, p. 2707.
100. "H. R. 6385 memorandum, section 16, folder 1270, Ralph
Lozier Papers; Ralph F. Lozier, House "Marihuana" hearings, p. 61;
Clinton M. Hester, Senate "Marihuana" hearings, p. 6.


101. Schultes, "Man and Marijuana," 60; Lowry, "Flax and
Hemp," 146; H. R. 6385, 75th Cong., 1 sess.; Ralph F. Lozier, House
"Marihuana" hearings, pp. 61, 72; McWilliams, The Protectors: Harry J.
Anslinger and the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, 1930-1962, 67; "Hempseed
Oil Out of Marihuana Bill," Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter, p. 51;
Fournier, "Les chimiotypes du Chanvre..." 681.
102. Martin J. Connolly, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2707.
103. Schabas, "Canadian-Grown Hemp May Soon Be Ready for Fine
Paper Producers," 60.
104. O. E. Sweeney, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2825.
105. Ralph F. Lozier Papers, folder 1269.
106. Ralph F. Lozier Papers, folder 1270; Ralph F. Lozier, House
"Marihuana" hearings, p. 63.
107. Fournier, "Apercu..." 1266; Grinspoon, Marihuana
Reconsidered, 34.
108. "Muni Burns Pot; Co-ops Want to Burn Peat," Electrical
World, 24.
109. West, "Cannabis and Night Vision," 703.
110. B. B. Robinson and A. H. Wright, Hemp: Its Production and
Use as a Fiber Crop, reprinted in "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2698;
Martin J. Connolly, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2707.
111. "Hemp Slows Up," Business Week, Oct. 23, 1943, p. 40;
"Hemp Quota Cut," Business Week, Jan. 22, 1944, pp. 29-30; "Hemp
Won't Move," Business Week, May 6, 1944, pp. 44-47; Wilsie, Black and
Aandahl, Hemp Production Experiments: Cultural Practices and Soil
Requirements, 15; Wilcox, "The Cost of Producing Hemp in Illinois in
1943," 78, 85; Robinson, "Our Flax and Hemp Industries," 243, 245.
112. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural 1949, Table 413,
p. 335 and 1946, Table 392, p. 307 and 1945, Table 378, p. 281 and 1944,
Table 356, p. 280.
113. Statement of S. H. McCrory, "Farm Crops" hearings, p.
2510; J. LeRoy Farmer to Guy M. Gillette, May 18, 1944 in "Farm Crops"
hearings, pp. 2725-26.
114. Dewey, "Hemp Fiber Losing Ground Despite Its Valuable
Qualities," 286.
115. Statement of Arthur Howe, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2512.
Average proceeds for fiber, combining line and the lower "tow" grade, were
$ 0.15. Those were general prices for the industry. Prices per pound at
three Wisconsin mills are given below.

J. LeRoy Farmer Hemp Mill, Beaver Dam,
Wisconsin
(from "Farm Crops" hearings, p.
2725)

[Insert chart here]

116. O. C. Olman to Guy M. Gillette, May 16, 1944, printed in
"Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2662.
117. Willard Rens to Guy M. Gillette, May 20, 1944, in "Farm
Crops" hearings, p. 2742.
118. J. LeRoy Farmer to Guy M. Gillette, May 18, 1944, in
"Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2725.
119. Series K 502-4, 506-8, 511-13, 520-22, 532-34, 561-63.
120. Statement of Arthur Howe, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2500.
121. J. LeRoy Farmer to Guy M. Gillette, May 18, 1944, in
"Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2726.
122. Fred E. Butcher, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2796.
123. Wilcox, "The Cost of Producing Hemp in Illinois in 1943,"
79. In the 1920's production costs from planting to harvest were similar
to those of wheat (Gilmore, "Hemp Culture May Be Profitable," 478;
Dacy, "Revolutionizing an Industry," 458), with profits described as
"large and dependable"
124. Coulter, "Hemp on the Home Front," 50.
125. Matt Rens, Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 5.
126. Harry C. Green, "Farm Crops" pp. 2833-34.
127. Matt Rens, Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 5.
128. George E. Farrell, Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 16.
129. "Hemp Cultivation in the United States," Textile Colorist,
327; Dacy, "Revolutionizing an Industry," 458; Garland, "Hemp; A
Minor American Fiber Crop," 130. J. LeRoy Farmer to Guy M.
Gillette, May 18, 1944 in "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2725.
131. George E. Farrell, Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 15;
Dempsey, Fiber Crops, 81.
132. Robinson, "Our Flax and Hemp Industries," 246.
133. Dempsey, Fiber Crops, 60.
134. S. H. McCrory to Guy M. Gillette, April 4, 1944, printed in
"Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2482; statement of Arthur Howe, "Farm Crops"
hearings, p. 2511.
135. O. C. Olman to Guy M. Gillette, May 16, 1944, in "Farm
Crops" hearings, pp. 2661-2.
136. Dempsey, Fiber Crops, 46.
137. Ibid., 47.
138. Series K 534, 546, 549, 555, 563, Historical
Statistics.
139. Malyon and Henman, "No Marihuana: Plenty of Hemp," 433.
140. Ibid., 434.
141. Fournier, "Apercu de la Production du Chanvre..." 1265.
Price figured by averaging exchange rate of francs for dollars in 1975
(4.2876) and 1977 (4.9160).
142. Malyon and Henman, "No Marihuana: Plenty of Hemp," 435.
Prices figured at 1980 exchange rate of francs for dollars.
143. United Nations, FAO, Table 84, p. 187.
144. Dewey, "Hemp," 321.
145. Matt Rens, Senate "Marihuana" hearings, pp. 25-26.
146. U. S. Treasury, Traffic 1938, p. 58.
147. S. H. McCrory to Guy M. Gillette, "Farm Crops" hearings,
p. 2482; Fred E. Butcher, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2799.
148. Dempsey, Fiber Crops, 68; B. B. Robinson, "Farm Crops"
hearings, pp. 2694-95.
149. Standard contract between Commodity Credit Corporation and
hemp growers, printed in "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2483.
150. Fournier, "Apercu de la Production du Chanvre..." 1265,
Price figured by averaging exchange rate of francs for dollars in 1975 and
1977.
151. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural 1949, Table 413,
p. 335 and 1946, Table 392, p. 307 and 1945, Table 378, p. 281
and 1944, Table 356, p. 280.
152. Rounded figures calculated from U. S. Treasury, Traffic
1938, 1940, 1958, 1959, 1961-65; Ralph F. Lozier, House
"Marihuana" hearings, 61.
153. Martin J. Connolly, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2705.
154. "Hemp: Our Forgotten Crop," Missouri Ruralist, 8, 11;
Hackleman and Domingo, "Hemp: An Illinois War Crop," 2.
155. Hackleman and Domingo, 2-3.
156. Wilsie, Black, and Aandahl, "Hemp Production Experiments:
Cultural Practices and Soil Requirements," 35.
157. Wilsie, Dyas, and Norman, "Hemp: A War Crop for Iowa,"
589.
158. B. B. Robinson, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2687.
159. "Hemp: Our Forgotten Crop," Missouri Ruralist, 8.
160. Hackleman and Domingo, "Hemp: An Illinois War Crop," 2.
161. Wilsie, Black, and Aandahl, "Hemp Production Experiments:
Cultural Practices and Soil Requirements," 42.
162. Haney and Kutscheid, "An Ecological Study of Naturalized
Hemp in East-Central Illinois," 18.
163. For a summary of rotation schemes see Dempsey, Fiber Crops,
57-58.
164. Vessel and Black, "Soil Type and Soil Management Factors in
Hemp Production," 384. Hacklelman and Domingo, "Hemp...," 3; Wilsie,
Black, and Aandahl, "Hemp Production Experiments...," 5, 25, 35, 41;
Wilcox, "The Cost of Producing Hemp in Illinois in 1943," 84.
165. Hackleman and Domingo, "Hemp: An Illinois War Crop," 3;
Wilsie, Black, and Aandahl, "Hemp Production Experiments...," 5, 30,
32-5; Dempsey, Fiber Crops, 64.
166. Wilsie, Black, and Aandahl, "Hemp...," 29, 32, n. 9.
167. Dempsey, Fiber Crops, 62-3.
168. Garland, "Hemp: A Minor American Fiber Crop," 130.
169. Robinson, "Hemp," (1943 edition), 5.
170. Wright, "Wisconsin's Hemp Industry," Dewey, "Hemp," 309,
311.
171. Hackleman and Domingo, "Hemp: An Illinois War Crop," 4;
B. B. Robinson, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2686; Robinson and Wright,
Hemp: Its Production and Use as a Fiber Crop, reprinted in "Farm Crops"
hearings, p. 2700.
172. Fred E. Butcher, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2801.
173. Malyon and Henman, "No Marihuana: Plenty of Hemp," 434.
174. Fournier, "Apercu..." 1268.
175. Wright, "Wisconsin's Hemp Industry, ; Edwards, "Plant
Fibers in Wartime," 107; "Hemp-Handling Machines Create New Industry,"
Popular Mechanics, 333.
176. Lowry, "Flax and Hemp," 145; Dewey, "Hemp," 308-9.
177. Garland, "Hemp: A Minor American Fiber Crop," 127.
178. Hackleman and Domingo, "Hemp: An Illinois War Crop," 4.
179. Vessel and Black, " Soil Type and Soil Management Factors
in Hemp Production," 384; Hackleman and Domingo, "Hemp: An Illinois War
Crop," 4; Wilsie, Black and Aandahl, "Hemp Production Experiments...,"
4, 19.
180. Wright, "Wisconsin's Hemp Industry"; Hackleman and Domingo,
"Hemp...," 4; Wilsie, Black and Aandahl, "Hemp...," 4.
181. Wilsie, Black, and Aandahl., "Hemp...," 4, 10, 16.
182. Ibid., 21-22.
183. Hackleman and Domingo, "Hemp: An Illinois War Crop," 4.
184. Wilsie, Black, and Aandahl, "Hemp Production...," 4.
185. Ibid., 17; Wilsie, Dyas, and Norman, "Hemp: A War Crop
for Iowa," 591.
186. ibid., 592.
187. Hackleman and Domingo, "Hemp: An Illinois War Crop," 6;
Wilsie, Dyas, and Norman, "Hemp: A War Crop for Iowa," 590.
188. Gilmore, "Hemp Culture May Be Profitable," 478; Goulding,
"The Development of Bast and Leaf Fibre Cultivation in the British Empire,"
87.
189. Wilsie, Dyas, and Norman, "Hemp: A War Crop for Iowa,"
593, 595; Robinson, "Hemp," (1943 edition), 10; J. LeRoy Farmer to
Guy M. Gillette, May 18, 1944 in "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2725.
190. Wilsie, Dyas, and Norman, "Hemp: A War Crop for Iowa,"
598; standard contract between Commodity Credit Corporation and growers,
printed in "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2483; Fred E. Butcher, "Farm
Crops" hearings, p. 2800.
191. D.E. Wren, Senate "Hemp" hearing, pp. 708.
192. Wright, "Hemp for Shoes, Ships and Twine," 28; Garland,
"Hemp: A Minor American Fiber Crop," 129, 130.
193. Fournier, "Apercu de la Production du Chanvre...," 1265.
194. S. H. McCrory, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2514; B. B.
Robinson and A. H. Wright, "Hemp: Its Production and Use as a Fiber
Crop," reprinted in "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2702.
195. Wilsie, Dyas, and Norman, "Hemp: A War Crop for Iowa," 590.
196. Willard Rens to Guy M. Gillette, May 20, 1944, in "Farm
Crops" hearings, p. 2743.
197. W. H. Fuller, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2805.
198. Fred E. Butcher, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2802.
199. Dempsey, Fiber Crops, 77.
200. Brown, "Progress in the Technology of Flax and Hemp," 301;
Robinson, "Our Flax and Hemp Industries," 247.

201. Schabas, "Canadian-Grown Hemp May Soon Be Ready for Fine
Paper Producers," 58, 60.
202. Wilsie, Dyas, and Norman, "Hemp: A War Crop for Iowa,"
596, 599.
203. "Hemp: The Barometer of War," Literary Digest, 27.
204. Wilcox, "The Cost of Producing Hemp...," 79.
205. Ibid., 83-84.
206. Robinson, "Our Flax and Hemp Industries," 243.
207. Dempsey, Fiber Crops, 53.
208. Ibid., 68; Statement of S. H. McCrory, "Farm Crops"
hearings, p. 2485; Dewey, "Hemp," 319.
209. Dacy," Revolutionizing an Industry," 457.
210. Dewey, "Hemp," 320.
211. Wambsganss, ""Chile's Hemp Production," 8.
212. Fournier, "Apercu de la Production du Chanvre...," 1266.
213. Ash, "Hemp-Production and Utilization," 160.
214. "Hemp: Our Forgotten Crop," Missouri Ruralist 8; "Hemp
Slows Up," Business Week, Oct. 23, 1943, p. 40; Wilsie, Dyas and
Norman, "Hemp: An Illinois War Crop," 588; S. H. McCrory to Guy M.
Gillette, April 4, 1944, printed in "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2482;
Fred E. Butcher, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2796.
215. "Hemp Cultivation in the United States," Textile Colorist,
327; Fred E. Butcher, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2796.
216. Wilcox, "The Cost of Producing Hemp in Illinois in 1943,"
1. Leo Entringer, "Farm Crops," p. 2831.
217. Coulter, "Hemp on the Home Front," 50.
218. "Hemp: Our Forgotten Crop," Missouri Ruralist, 8;
Hackleman and Domingo, "Hemp: An Illinois War Crop," 1.
219. Fred E. Butcher, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2797.
220. Wright, "Wisconsin's Hemp Industry," 6. See also Wright,
"Hemp for Shoes, Ships, and Twine," 28.
221. Gilmore, "Hemp Culture May Be Profitable," 478.
222. M. G. Moksnes, Senate, "Marihuana" hearings, p. 27.
223. Malyon and Henman, "No Marihuana: Plenty of Hemp," 434.
224. "Hemp-Handling Machines Create New Industry," Popular
Mechanics, 333-34; Dewey, "Hemp," 331.
225. "Hemp: The Barometer of War," Literary Digest, 27
226. Clinton M. Hester, House "Marihuana" hearings, p. 68.
227 Ralph F. Lozier, House "Marihuana" hearings, p. 61; U. S.
Treasury, Traffic 1938, p. 91.
228. Clinton M. Hester, Senate "Marihuana" hearings, p. 20.
229. Wright, "Wisconsin's Hemp Industry," 7; "Hemp Slows Up,"
Business Week, Oct. 23, 1943, p. 40; Thomas William Kenefick, "Farm
Crops," p. 2833; George E. Farrell, Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 16.
230. Fred E. Butcher, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2797; "Hemp
Cultivation in the United States," Textile Colorist, 326.
231. Garland, "Hemp: A Minor American Fiber Crop," 126.
232. Small, "American Law and the Species Problem in Cannabis:
Science and Semantics," 2-3, 14-17; Dempsey, Fiber Crops, 47; John N.
McGovern, "Fibers, Vegetable," in Grayson and Eckroth, eds., Kirk, 190;
Grinspoon, "Marihuana Reconsidered," 35-37; Jones and Lovinger, "The
Marijuana Question and Science's Search for an Answer," 2, 252; Fournier,
"Les Chimiotypes du Chanvre...," 679-80, 687; Hemphill, Turner, and
Mahlberg, "Cannabinoid Content of Individual Plant Organs from Different
Geographical Strains of Cannabis sativa L.," 113, 119; Fairbairn, and
Liebmann, " The Cannabinoid Content of Cannabis sativa L. Grown in
England," 413, 415, 418; Latta and Eaton, "Seasonal Fluctuations in
Cannabinoid Content of Kansas Marijuana," 161; Phillips et at., "
Seasonal Variation in Cannabinolic Content of Indiana Marihuana," 196;
Fetterman et al., " Missisippi-Grown Cannabis sativa L.: Preliminary
Observations on Chemical Definition of Phenotype and Variations in THC
Content versus Age, Sex, and Plant Part," 1246-7
233. Royal C. Johnson, Senate "Marihuana" hearings, p. 31.
234. Armagnac, "Plant Wizards Fight Wartime Drug Peril," 63.
235. B. B. Robinson, "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2684.
236. Fournier, "Les Chimiotypes du Chanvre," 679, 683, 687;
Hemphill, Turner, and Mahlberg, "Cannabinoid Content...," 114, 116, 118;
Fournier, "Apercu de la Production du Chanvre...," 1264; J. P. Mathieu to
Richard Lawrence Miller, May 16, 1991.
237. Malyon and Henman, "No Marihuana...," 433.
238. Novak, "High Culture: Marijuana in the Lives of Americans,"
176, 191-2; Fournier, "Les Chimiotypes du Chanvre," 679; Jones and
Lovinger, "The Marijuana Question and Science's Search for an Answer,"
252; Latta and Eaton, "Seasonal Fluctuations in Cannabinoid Content of
Kansas Marijuana," 161.
239. Fournier, "Apercu de la Production du Chanvre...," 1264;
J. P. Mathieu to Richard Lawrence Miller, May 16, 1991; Fournier, "Les
Chimiotypes du Chanvre," 687.
240. Latta and Eaton, "Seasonal Fluctuations...," 153, 158, 161;
Phillips et al., "Seasonal Variation...," 196-8; Fetterman et at.,
"Mississippi-Grown Cannabis sativa...," 1246.
241. Novak, "High Culture...," 191-2; Malyon and Henman, "No
Marihuana: Plenty of Hemp," 433.
242. Latta and Eaton, "Seasonal Fluctuations...,"; Phillips et
al., Fetterman, et al., "Mississippi-Grown Cannabis...,"
243. Latta and Eaton, "Seasonal Fluctuations...,"
244. Phillips et al., "Seasonal Variations...," 191, 195.
245. "H. R. 6385" memorandum, folder 1270, Ralph Lozier Papers;
Raymond G. Scarlett, House "Marihuana' hearings, p. 74; Joseph
Hertzfeld, House "Marihuana' hearings, p. 77; Memorandum of Rens Hemp
Co., Senate "Marihuana" hearings, p. 24; Schultes, "Man," 60;
Hemphill, Turner, and Mahlberg, "Cannabinoid Content of Individual Plant
Organs...," 112, 113; Latta and Eaton, "Seasonal Fluctuations of Kansas
Marijuana," 153, 156-7; Fetterman et al., "Mississippi-Grown
Cannabis...," 1249.
246. Raymond G. Scarlett, House "Marihuana" hearings, p. 76.
247. Grinspoon, Marihuana Reconsidered, 36-37; Abel, "That
Valuable Article : Hemp," 27; Fournier, "Les Chimiotypes du Chanvre,"
679.
248. Dempsey, Fiber Crops, 55; Robinson, "Hemp," (1943
edition), 5; Matt Rens, Senate "Marihuana" hearings, 26; Ash, "
Hemp-Production and Utilization," 160; Robert M. La Follette, Jr.,
Senate "Hemp" hearing, pp. 3-4.
249. Harry J. Anslinger, Senate "Marihuana" hearings, pp. 10,
17; Matt Rens, Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 6; Affidavit of George F.
Hayes, May 21, 1945, in Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 31; Samuel H.
McCrory, Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 12.
250. J. P. Mathieu t Richard Lawrence Miller, May 16, 1991.
251.Hackleman and Domingo, " Hemp: An Illinois War Crop," 5;
Lyster H. Dewey, House "Marihuana" hearings, pp. 83-84; Haney and
Kutscheid, "An Ecological Study of Naturalized Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)
in East-Central Illinois," 21.
252. File 27, Box 9, Harry J. Anslinger Papers; Harry J.
Anslinger, Senate "Marihuana" hearings, p. 18; B. B Robinson, "Farm
Crops" hearings, p. 2688; Matt Rens, Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 5;
Fournier, "Les Chimiotypes du Chanvre," 686; Latta and Eaton, "Seasonal
Fluctuations...," 153, 156-7.
253. Wilsie, Black, and Aandahl, "Hemp Production...," 46.
254. Novak, "High Culture...,"177. See also Jones and Lovinger,
"The Marijuana Question," 5.
255. Garland, "Hemp: A Minor American Fiber Crop," 130
256. Harry J. Anslinger, Senate "Marihuana" hearings, pp. 13,
18.
257. Memorandum on Effect of Marihuana Bill (H. R. 6385) Upon
Legitimate Business, folder 1269, Ralph Lozier Papers; Matt Rens, Senate
"Hemp" hearing, p. 5; D. E. Wren, Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 8.
258. Royal C. Johnson, Senate "Marihuana" hearings, p. 31.
259. Handwritten notes, Ralph Lozier Papers, folder 1270.
260. Ralph F. Lozier, House "Marihuana" hearings, p. 63.
261. H. R. 6906, Sec. 1 (b), Sec. 2 (a) (1), Sec. 6 (b) (5).
262. "Marihuana," Oil, Paint, and Drug Reporter, p. 56.
263. Clinton M. Hester, Senate "Marihuana" hearings, p. 7.
264. Ibid., p.9.
265. Harry J. Anslinger, Senate "Marihuana" hearings, p. 17.
266. Ibid., pp. 17-18.
267. Ibid., p. 18. Growers had to report where their crops were
planted, amount of acreage, and either the amount stalks harvested or
amount of fiber yielded from stalks (26 CFR sec. 152.72, 1938).
268. Clinton M. Hester, Senate "Marihuana" hearings, p. 19.
269. Harry J. Anslinger, Senate "Marihuana" hearings, pp. 10,
18. Hester said if federal agents discovered cannabis growing wild on
someone's property, "if he did not destroy the weed, he would become a
producer...and subject to the [$ 25 annual ] tax. He would not be
committing a crime if he failed to cut it and would merely have to pay a
tax." (Clinton M. Hester, House "Marihuana" hearings, p. 78,)
270. This interpretation of the historical record is explicitly
confirmed in "Marihuana," Oil, Paint, and Drug Reporter, p. 5, and Robert
M. LaFollette, Jr., Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 18, and Amending Certain
Narcotic Laws, H. Rpt. 1672, 79th Cong., 2d sess.
271. Standard contract between Commodity Credit Corporation and
hemp growers, printed in "Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2483.
272. Title III, section 1, Master Contract between Commodity
Credit Corporation and War Hemp Industries, Inc., printed in "Farm Crops"
hearings, p. 2524.
273. Title III, section 2, Master Contract between Commodity
Credit Corporation and War Hemp Industries, Inc., printed in "Farm Crops:
hearings, pp. 2524-25.
274. Title IV, section 8, Master Contract between Commodity Credit
Corporation and War Hemp Industries, Inc., printed in "Farm Crops"
hearings, p. 2527.
275. Section 10, 1943 Hempseed Purchase Agreement, printed in
"Farm Crops" hearings, p. 2532.
276. Sections 2, 6, and 7, 1943 Hempseed Cleaning Agreement,
printed in "Farm Crops" hearings, pp. 2533, 2535.
277. Robert M. La Follette, Jr., Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 3;
V. A. Batzner, Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 9; James J. Biggins to Matt
Rens Hemp Co., March 23, 1945, in Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 31.
278. V. A. Batzner, Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 9.
279. B. T. Mitchell and Will S. Wood, Senate "Hemp" hearing, p.
19.
280. Harry J. Anslinger, Senate "Marihuana" hearings, pp. 10,
17.
281. Matt Rens, Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 6.
282. Affidavit of George F. Hayes, May 21, 1945, in Senate "Hemp"
hearing, p. 31.
283. J. P. Mathieu to Richard Lawrence Miller, May 16, 1991.
284. Samuel H. McCrory, Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 12.
285.O. C. Olman, Senate "Marihuana" hearings, p. 32; A. H.
Wright to Robert M. LaFollette, Jr., May 19, 1945, in Senate "Hemp"
hearing, pp. 28-29; Statement by A. H. Wright, Senate "Hemp" hearing,
p. 29.
286. Ralph F. Lozier, House "Marihuana" hearings, p. 70.
287. Title 26, sect. 2591(e), USC 1952; Charles S. Murphy,
Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 20.
288. 26 USC sec. 3231(b), 1952. Slightly revised in 1954 to
broaden the federal agents entitled to examine records (26 USC sec.
4753(b), 1958). As shown in Amending Certain Narcotic Laws, H. Rpt. 1672,
79th Cong., 2d sess., Rep. John D. Dingell was a House conference manager
who agreed to this revision of the 1937 law. Dingell was one of the
toughest proponents of the original 1937 law. His support of the 1946
revision is strong evidence that Congress had no desire to harm the hemp
industry.
289. 26 CFR 152.21 (1971).
290. Statement of A. H. Wright, Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 30;
Joseph P. O'Hara, Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 2.
291. Will S. Wood, Senate "Hemp" hearing, p. 18.
292. Ch 204.3, Code of Iowa 1946.
293. Article XXVIII, sec. 2, Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs
(18 UST 1407, 1421).
294. Robinson, "Hemp," (1952 edition); Treasury Department,
Traffic 1961-1967.
295. Statutory commercial hemp regulation was repealed Oct. 27,
1970, date of repeal effective May 1, 1971 (repealed by Pub. L. 91-513,
title III, sec. 1101(b)(3)(A), Oct 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1292;
administrative regulations repealed by 36 F.R., April 24, 1971, p. 7778.
296. 21 USC 802(16).
297. RS Mo 195.010 (26).
298. Acreage figures are rounded. Figures for legal cannabis are
acres harvested; more acres are planted than are harvested. U. S.
Treasury, Traffic 1938-1944; U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural
1949, Table 413, p. 335.
299. For example see Minnesota Statutes 1957, 20.26-28.
300. Session Laws of Minnesota for 1969, Chapter 57--S. F. No.
609.
301. Fournier, "Les Chimiotypes du Chanvre," 681.
302. Malyon and Henman, "No Marihuana: Plenty of Hemp," 435;
Fournier, "Apercu de la Production du Chanvre...," 1264; J. P. Mathieu to
Richard Lawrence Miller, May 16, 1991; Journal Officiel de la Republique
Francaise, R. 5181, 31 Dec. 1988 and application of R. 5181, 4 Oct. 1990,
p. 12041.
303. Ch. N-1, sec. 2, Revised Statutes of Canada 1985.
304. Ch. N-1, sec. 6(1), Revised Statutes of Canada 1985.

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MANUSCRIPTS

Anslinger, Harry J. Papers. Historical Collections and Labor Archives.
Pattee Library, Penn State University.

Lozier, Ralph F. Papers. Western Historical Manuscripts. University of
Missouri.
CORRESPONDENCE

J. P. Mathieu (Comite Economique Agricole de la Production du Chanvre) to
Richard Lawrence Miller, May 16, 1991. Author's files.




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